History of Diabetes

ancient Egyptians were the 1st who described Clinical features of diabetes mellitus 3000 years ago, the first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes. The term “diabetes” was first described by Aretaeus of Cappadocia (81-133AD)

since the 8th century, diabetic patients tendency to have skin infections as rodent ulcers, furuncles and troubles of the eyesight had been observed. In 11th century sexual dysfunction and Gangrene complications were described and mentioned. later, the medieval scholar Moises Maimonides described the acidosis in detail (1138-1204).

Later, after discovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients the word mellitus (honey sweet) was added by Thomas Willis (Britain) in 1675,which was first noticed by the ancient Indians.

in 1776 Dobson (Britain confirmed the presence of excess sugar in urine and blood which causes their sweetness, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production believed by Claude Bernard (France) in 1857.

Mering and Minkowski (Austria) 1889discovered the role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes as dogs whose pancreas was removed developed all the signs and symptoms of diabetes and died shortly after from the Latin insula, meaning island, refer to the insulin-producing islets of Langerhans in the pancreas,Sir Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer believed that people with diabetes were deficient in a chemical substance that normally produced by the pancreas—named it ‘insulin’.

Sir Frederick Grant Banting and Charles Herbert Best repeated the experiment of Von Mering and Minkowskiin 1921, and they induced diabetes in dogs by giving them the pancreatic islets of Langerhans extracted from healthy dogs

Paul Langerhans discovered the islets of Langerhans in 1869.

After that scientists stated to develop treatment

Metformin had been developed of in 1922 to treat type 2 Diabetes

Sulfonylureas had been Identified for the first time in 1942

in the late 1950s, started the use of big uanides for Type 2 diabetes. withdrawal of The initial Phenformin (in the U.S. in 1977) due to it potentiated fatal lactic acidosis, in France metformin was marketed or first timein 1979, but markedin the US in 1994.

Dr Gerald Reaven’s identified the symptoms by metabolic syndrome in 1988.

first thiazolidinedione had been Identified as an effective insulin sensitizer during the 1990s.

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