What is Diabetes?

There are three tests the doctors can determine if the patient has diabetes mellitus disease or not. He asks the patient to make A1C test which must show 6.5% or more, FPG test which means Fasting plasma glucose test and it has to show 126 mg/dl or more and OGTT test which means oral glucose tolerance test and it has to show 200 mg/dl or more.

After checking the above test the doctors can make sure that the patient case is diabetes mellitus but what is diabetes mellitus? That’s what we’re going to know in the few following lines.

First the name diabetes mellitus came from two people. Diabetes word which came from Greek. It means Siphon. In the second century a physician called Aretus the Cappadocian discovered that disease and described their case as a siphon because they often need to urinate. And the second syllable ” Mellitus ” came from Thomas Willis in the seventeenth century and it is a Latin word means honey which refers to high glucose levels in blood So we can say that diabetes mellitus means siphoning or dropping off sweet water.

Diabetes mellitus is a disease belongs to metabolism disorder. All people eat various kinds of food then their bodies digest the food to get energy which is needed to all the activities they do and also for growth. Sugar is one of food types which is broken down into glucose to be transported by blood to be absorbed by cells.

Without insulin – a hormone is produced by the Pancreas – the cells can’t take the glucose. Usually Pancreas produces insulin to let the glucose enter the cells. If a patient has diabetes that means one of three cases:

  • Pancreas doesn’t produce enough quantity of insulin.
  • Pancreas doesn’t produce insulin at all.
  • Body cells are unableto respond to the insulin within.

In the above three cases glucose exists with high levels in blood then it exits from the body through urination and the body cannot get the required energy then the symptoms of that disease start to appear on the patient and by the previous mentioned tests are required to descried the case then the patient will need a long term treatment of this disease.


  • World Health Organization members, “Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and intermediate hyperglycemia”, report of a WHO/IDF consultation, Geneva, World Health Organization, 2006.
  • Gale, EA; Gillespie, KM, “Diabetes and gender”, Diabetologia, 2001.


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